The Unification of Nepal First Phase part 3 - Ten'z Nepal

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Monday, October 23, 2017

The Unification of Nepal First Phase part 3

  • Victory over the Muslim force 

        After losing his own country Makawanpur, Digbandan Sen appealed for the help to Mir Kasim, the Muslim king of war against the East Bengal. Mir Kasim was preparing to wage India Company. At that time Mir Kasim was in need of friends, he also wanted desperately to test his newly organized army Except these, he wanted to collect the precious wealth from this, he accepted the request of Digbandan and he sent his 2000 strong soldiers under the command of Gurgin Khan in 1763 A.D. Soon after having the message of arriving the Muslim force, Prithivi Narayan Shah sent his force first, the Muslim force went away but they had to surrender with force. The Gorkhas defeated the army of Gurgin Khan. The Muslim troops fled away from the battlefield and the Gorkha captured their arms ammunition. In this war, about 1700 Muslim soldiers and 25 30 i soldiers were killed. Digbandan was able flee his family was arrested. At last he also surrendered with Gorkha. In this way, king Prithivi Narayan Shah won Bara Parsa, Sharlahi, ahottari and other terrain places and he conquered Dhulikhel, Panauti, Banepa, Nala, etc surrounding places of the valley. After that the heavy economic blockeade was placed in the valley. Makawanpur was the southern gateway of the valley. He cut off the imports and exports all the goods of the valley and brought about an economic crisis to the kingdom. The person who supplied a little bit of salt and cotton, would be also punished. In this way due to his fore sighted diplomacy Prithivi Narayan Shah weakened the position of the valley kingdoms and invaded them at the right time.

  • Annexation of Tanahun 

         Tanahu feared, seeing the growing power of Gorkha. Tribikram Sen, the king of Tanahun, wanted to win the Lamidanda. But king Prithivi Narayan Shah quickly knew his view. Prithivi Narayan Shah now thought to annex Tanahun to his kingdom. Guru Gaureswar was the common preceptor Guru), Prithivi Narayan Shah called king Tribikram Sen to the bank of the Trisuli on the pretest of making friendship. Prithivi Narayan Shah had hidden arms in the sand at the bank of the river. When Trivikram Sen came, the Gorkha captured him. He was taken in chains to Nuwakot and was imprisoned there. By such a treacherrous act, Prithivi Narayan Shah got hold of Tanahun and annexed it to the kingdom of Gorkha.

  • Second invasion of Kirtipur

 Prithivi Narayan Shah had already won the surrounding places of the valley and made heavy block in the valley. The habitants of the valley were like prisoners in their own city They began to think to join Prithivi Narayan Shah, for rid of those daily routine problems. Meanwhile, the six pradhans invited Prithivi Narayan Shah for rule in Patan, but Narayan Shah sent his brother Dalamardhan Shah. During the time of Dalamardan Shah, Gorkha attacked Kirtipur on 16th September 1764 under the command of Sur Pratap Shah, the youngest brother of Prithivi Narayan Shah. This place was under the Patan. So, Patan didn't send the force. And, from other places, nobody came for encounter. But the courageous people of Kirtipur defeated the Gorkhali troops, and Shah lost his eye.

  • Conquest of Kirtipur 

           After losing for two times, however Prithivi Narayan Shah did not give up his hope to conquer the valley kingdoms. Now he totally blocked the importing goods in the valley. The valley people were having a hard time In the same condition for the third time, Prithivi Narayan Shah sent his army under the command of Bansa Raj Pandey who made a sudden attack on Kirtipur in December 1767. This time the Gorkha troops got victory over Kirtipur. Prithivi Narayan Shah became so furious from his former defeats in the hands of people of Kirtipur that he ordered for the noses of the people of Kirtipur to be cut off.

  • Struggle over the British force

        After winning the Kirtipur the valley became very weak The three Malla kings of the valley knew very well that they never win against the growing power of Narayan Shah Prithivi Jaya Prakash Malla of Kantipur was also alarmed at the growing power of Prithivi Narayan Shah. So he requestd for help from the East India Company in order to defend his kingdom from the Gorkha aggression. The East India Company sent a letter ordering Prithivi Narayan Shah to out the leave valley. But brave ng Prithivi Narayan Shah didn't care his letter. And, the East India Company sent 2400 soldiers in 1767 A.D. under the command of General Kinloc who tried to enter Nepal via Dharvanga and Sindhuli. Soon, after getting the message about arriving force of East India Company, Prithivi Narayan Shah sent his force at Sindhuli. The Gorkhali troops knew well about the hilly warfare. Gorkha soldiers were under the leadership of Bir Bhadra Thapa and Kaji Bansa Raj Pandey who attacked them in the hills above Sindhuli. The British soldiers were not aware of the techniques of hill warfare or the bravery of the Gorkhas. They couldn't fight against the Gorkhas and ran away from the battlefield. This time too the Gorkha captured a huge supply of ammunition and cannons, which were used in later wars.

  • Conquest of Kantipur 

        After winning over British force, Prithivi Narayan Shah had a great ambition to conquer the valley. He continuously made strong economic block in the valley and gradually planned how to conquer the valley kingdoms. First he sent a letter to Jaya Prakash Malla for surrender. But brave king Jaya Prakasho Malla didn't accept his proposal and engaged to celebrate the festival. Indrajatra. At the same time, Gorkha troops entered Kantipur suddenly through three sides Bhimsenthan, Naradevi and Tundikhael on 26th September 1768. King Prithivi Narayan Shah was leading the side of Naradevi and his two brothers were in other two sides. The troops of Jaya Prakash Malla fought for sometime, and then they surrendered. Jaya Prakash Malla hid in the Taleju temple for sometime and he fled to Patan for shelter through the way of Pachali, crossing the Bagmati River. Prithivi Narayan Shah on throned and declared himself to be the king of Kantipur. On the following day all the people of Kantipur came to obey to king Prithivi Narayan Shah. They accepted him without any comment. Instead the king and people together celebrated the festival Indrajatra.

  • Conquest of Lalitpur  

        After winning the Kantipur, king Prithivi Narayan Shah concentrated his mind to win Lalitpur and Bhaktapur. First he sent a messenger, Sri Harsha Pant to Patan, for surrender. The six Pradhans were ready to surrender. Knowing this news Tej Narasimha Malla, the king of Patan and Jaya Prakash Malla fled from there and went away to Bhaktapur for shelter on 6th Oct 1768. Then Prithivi Narayan Shah annexed Patan to his kingdom after 11th days of winning Kantipur without any bloodshed.

  • Conquest of Bhaktapur 

          After winning Kantipur and Lalitpur, king Prithivi Narayan Shah went away for Bhaktapur. At first he requested Ranajet Malla to handover both kings Tej Narasinha Malla and Jaya Prakash Malla. But king Ranajeet Malla didn't agree to do it. Prithivi Narayan Shah again requested to him for surrender Ranajeet Malla again disagreed with him. In the mean time Jaya Prakash Malla was asking for help from Karna sen, the king of Chaudandi as well as British force and was thinking to encounter with Prithivi Narayan Shah. Not only this, but also he was speaking to illegitimate sons of Ranajeet Malla for enthroned and encourging them for fight against Gorkha Meanwhile on April 1769, Prithivi Narayan Shah captured Thimi. In the same year on 12th November 1769 Prithivi Narayan Shah attacked Bhaktapur. The war occurred for two days. More than 2000 soldiers were killed and about 500 houses were burnt Jaya Prakash Malla was wounded by a bullet in his leg while climbing the stairs of the palace. After that Ranajeet Malla surrendered. In this way king Prithivi Narayan Shah won the valley. As desired by Ranajeet Malla, Prithivi Narayan Shah sent him to Kashi to pass the rest of the days of his life. Jaya Prakash Malla died on 24th November 1779 in Pashupati. It is said that before he died, he asked Prithivi Narayan Shah for his umbrella and sandals. Tej Narasimha Malla didn't make any demands and he was imprisoned. After winning the valley king Prithivi Narayan Shah replaced the name Gorkha with Nepal.

  • Alliance with British 

          After winning the valley his ambition didn't stop. Rather it increased day by day The king of new Nepal, Prithivi Narayan Shah again began to prepare for war against Chaubise and Baisi territories. Except this the places where the captain Kinloc had claimed, Prithivi Narayan Shah also wanted to return to new Nepal. So he planned to do peaceful alliance with East India Company and gradually wanted to seize these losing places. For this purpose, he appointed Din Nath Upadhaya as a messenger and sent to do agreement. He also maintained all the problems. After that he prepared for invasion with Chaubisi and Baisi states.

  • Invasion in the western 

      After maintaining peaceful agreement with East India Company, king Prithivi Narayan Shah planned to expand of the boundary of new Nepal. For this purpose he sent the force towards the Chaubisi under the leadership of Kaji Bamsaraj Pande, Sardar Kehar Singh Basnet, and others. The troops, which were under Keharsingh, enclosed the Suhra, the capital of Tanahu, via capturing the Chhanga, Manpang, and villages. Kamaridatt Sen, the king of Tanahun committed suicide without an heir. His brother Harakumar Datt Sen accepted the new Nepal and he also promised to help Nepalese troops. Seeing this event, Birmardan Shah, the king of Lamjung sent his son Birbhupal Shah for surrender. Likewise the troops, which were under the leadership of kaji Bamsraj Pande, went iddhinarayan towards Kaski. Seeing the force of new Ne Shah, the king of Kaski, soon surrendered. After that the king of western Nuwakot fled from his kingdom and went Bhirkot for shelter. In this way this place also came under Nepal. The force under Keharsingh mixed with the force of Bamsaraj by seizing the places Rissing, Dhor etc. and joint troops captured other places of Chaubisi, Bhirkot, Garahun, Paiunn, etc. Watching the growing power of new Nepal, Kirtibam Malla, the king of Parbat and Mukunda Sen II the king of Palpa were alarmed and prepared against Prithivi Narayan Shah. The joint force of both states came in confrontation in Tanahun. In this battle Keharsingh Basnet was killed and Bamsaraj Pandey was imprisoned. Once again Chaubisi's good fortune was seen. After that the winning places Lamjung, Kaski, Tanahun and others declared themshalf as independent. In this way the expansion towards Chaubisi couldn't succeed properly.
                                               

  • Invasion in the Eastern 

After leaving the invasion of the west, king Prithivi Narayan Shah concentrated his mind towards the east. There were two different independent kingdoms in the eastern places Chaudandi in Kamala region and Bijayapur in Koshi region King Prithivi Narayan Shah sent the troops under the leadership of Abiman Singh Basnet and Parath Bhandari Knowing the possible attack of Nepal, Karna Sen, the king of Chaundadi had already vanished and went to Bijayapur for shelter. Therefore Chaudandi was easily annexed to Nepal without any bloodshed. The prime minister Buddhikarna Rai of Bijayapur, declared himself as the king of Bijayapur due to lack of the king. After one year, the Nepalese troops attacked Bijayapur, and king Karna Sen and Buddikarna Rai fled to Sikkim for shelter.
       King Prithivi Narayan Shah again concentrated towards Chau bisi by leaving the expansion of the east. He went Nuwakot for arrangement. In the meanwhile, king Prithivi Narayan Shah fell sick. After somedays, he died at Trisuli Devighat, on 11th January 1775 at the age of 52. Along with the first stage of unification was also completed. 
       King Prithivi Narayan Shah was a highly ambitious and great courageous man. He was active, kind, liberal and a just king. He had good thoughts and inspirations acquired from practical experiences. His valuable advices to his successors are popularly known as Dibya Upadesh, the Divine council.