The Unification of Nepal First Phase part 2 - Ten'z Nepal

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Monday, October 23, 2017

The Unification of Nepal First Phase part 2

  • Visit to the Valley 

           Prithivi Narayan Shah was married with 12 years of of king Hem karma Sen Indrakumari the daughter Makawan pur. According to the custom, Indrakumari was not sent to her husband immediately after the marriage, After sometime he went Makawanpur to take his wife But because of strained relation between Sen and Prithivi Narayan Shah, he left his wife and came back. On his way back Gorkha, he went to see the kingdom of the valley. He quite fascinated when from the hill of Chandragiri he saw the valley kingdoms. He was very displeased with the king Makawanpur, and in retaliation, he married Narendra Laxmi, the daughter of Abhiman Singh, a Rajput of Banarash in February 1740 A.D. After that queen Chandra Pra sent Prithivi Narayan Shah to study the situation of the Kathmandu valley. He stayed in Bhaktapur and acquainted with Bir Narasimha Malla, son of Ranjeet Malla. He had the great agreement with king Ranajeet Malla and went back to Gorkha. On the way he had met Jayaprakash Malla, the king of Kantipur .
                    

  • Enthronement and first invasion of Nuwakot 

            In the meantime, Narabhupal Shah died and Prithiv Narayan Shah ascended to the throne of Gorkha kingdom on 3rd April after the enthronement, king Prithivi Narayan Shah became very hurry to conquer Nuwakot Actually, king Prithivi Narayan Shah was an ambitious king. He wanted to extend the territory of his kingdom far and wide by unified all the tiny kingdoms. His main target was  Kathmandy valley. But before invading the valley, he had to seize Nuwakot, which was the gateway to the valley and main trade passed between Kantipur and Tibet. Because of it the valley was very powerful in economic condition King unsuccessful. So, also attacked Nuwakot, but he had been with youth young blood and new kingly xperience, king Prithivi Narayan Shah sent his force under the leadership of Kaji Biraj Thapa to attack But Jayanta Rana the guard of Nuwakot had already seen prepared. He knew very well about the actual power of Gorkha, because before this he was appointed as commander in the battle of during the time of Narabhupal Shah. So, Biraj Thapa did not attack immediately after reaching Nuwakot, but he started to study the stength of the Nuwakot y and the situaton of the kingdom, Prithivi Narayan Shah d not like the delay of Biraj Thapa and so he sent another force. The additional force attacked Nuwakot instantly but the Gorkha troops were badly defeated. In fact, the Gorkhali troops were unknown about the geographical situation of Nuv ot. During the war, the two Gorkhali commanders blamed each other. As a result they did not try to fight to get victory nother point Prithivi Narayan Shah learned a good lesson about the battle and strategic points 

  • Visit to Banaras and betterment of forces 

             The defeat at the invasion of Nuwakot ught Prithivi Narayan Shah a good lesson. He realized that the standard of his army was below what he had estimated. He knew, his troops lacked arms and different strategies, Thinking such points he went to Banarash with a purpose, performing the Shradha, to collect the war weapons, and to study the political and economic condition of the East India Company and others After reaching Banarash he changed his Gotra the clan, from Bharadwaj into Kasyap. After that he acquired different kinds of arms and ammunition, which was necessary for his troops Performing all his deed, he returned back with the Muslim trainer via Butwal and began to train his soldiers in the art cf warfare. Taking advices of Kalu Pandey, first he maintained the internal administration by changing the different post as well as calling back some respected householders who had gone to the terai region. He also maintained the disharmonious relationship of Pandey and Basnet by arranging the marriage ceremony to each othar fancily to each other facility considering of people, Prithivi Shah appionted kalu Pandey in the post of Kaji. After all, he began to prepare for the next invasion of Nuwakot.

  •      Peace alliance with Lamjung 


           After visiting the Banarash, he made his army perfect by training everything of warfare. And, he began to hurry to attack Nuwakot. But he was feared that country Lamjung might attack Prithivi Narayan Shah would be away on his invasion campaign. Kaji Kalu Pandey was wise, brave and far-sighted. So Prithivi Narayan Shah always took various advices with him before doing something. Now, Prithivi Narayan Shah by his advice sent Kalu Pandey to hold talks with the king of Lamjung him pande mad a cordial talk with the king of Lamjung at the bank of the Chepe River. Actually they were traditional enemies before long period. After that again Gorkha made an alliance with Kaski Tanahun and Palpa.
                                 

  •    Conquest of Nuwakot 

                After arranging the all-internal management king Prithivi Narayan Shah prepared to attack Nuwakot. Actually Gorkha was now made secure from all sides. Another point Prithivi Narayan Shah knew very well, while conditioning alliance peace relationship among Malla kings, that he would never win. So he was searching the unique time to attack Nuwakot. In the meantime, between two brothers Jaya Prakash the of Kantipur and his brother Rajya Malla had no good relationship. Rajya Prakash Malla had vanished from Kantipur and went for shelter in Patan. Because of it Kantipur and Patan had no good relationship. King Prithivi had already convinced Bhaktapur. So, now Narayan Sh Kantipur was alone. Knowing right time, under the command of king Prithivi Narayan Shah himself, the Gorkha troops attacked Nuwakot in September 1744 A.D. from three sides. At that all Gorkhali troops were on disguise in the uniform of farmer Jayanta Rana, he security chief of army also had gone to Kathmandu, on the occasion of festival of Indrajata by leaving his son Shankamani Rana. He couldn't resist the powerful Gorkhali troops and Shankamani Rana got killed in the battlefield, Other troops fled to Belkot. Thus, Nuwakot fell in the hands of Prithivi Narayan Shah. After that Prithivi Narayan Shah attacked Belkot. At last, the Gorkha troops won a victory over Belkot.After knowing the mes of attacking in Nuwakot, Jayanta Rana soon returned. He was the commander of the Gorkha army during the reign of Narabhupal Shah in the past, now he was the commander of the Malla troops installed at Belkot. It is said that Prithivi Narayan Shah ordered his soldiers to skin the living body of Jayanta Rana. He was said to have treated Jayanta Rana in that manner to show the fatc of a betrayer of Gorkha. After conquest of Nuwakot, Kantipur had to economic problem. Then king Prithivi Narayan Shah began to think about all the areas around the valley. This conquest was a great painful experience to Jayaprakash Malla. tried to return this by sending a force under the Kashiram Thapa he couldn't succeed, but Jayaprakash Malla killed him.

  • Victory over eastern places of the Valley 

After winning Nuwakot, the Gorkhali troops came ahead with enthusiasm. Now king Prithivi Narayan Shah thought to attack the fort of the valley. For achieving these aims, firstly he aligned with Parshuram Thapa, brother of Kashiram Thapa who was killed by Jayaprakash Malla. Prithivi Narayan Shah also was over convinced to hand Bhaktapur, after winning such places Shankhu, Changu, Naldum etc. Parshuram Thapa was the security commander of Bhaktapur. Ranajeet Malla had already come in an allurement of Prithivi Narayan Shah. So, the joint troops of Gorkha and Bhaktapur attacked on Shankhu, Changu in September in 1746 and later Mahadevpokhari and Naldum places were seized. Meanwhile, some chiefs of nobles enthroned his son Jyotiparakash Malla and dethroned Jayaprakash Malla. During the time of Uyotiprakash Malla, Kantipur returned such Shankhui, Changu and other places returned in 1751 A.D. But again in 1754 A.D Gorkha won all these places and this time he didn't hand over to Bhaktapur.

  • Struggle with Chaubise states 

          Gorkha had always fear with Chaubise states. They might jointly attack Gorkha. So king Prithivi Narayan Shah made a policy of alliance with some powerful principalities in his favor by giving some wealth. For this aim, he sent Kalu Pandey for trying friendship with Parbat, Kaski, Bhirkot and Palpa. Except this, he tried to make continuously cause to fraction between Lamjung and Tanahun. But this policy didn't bring sustainable security to Gorkha. When Lamidada was annexed, Tanahun was alarmed along with other states. In the meanwhile, Lamjung, Tanahun, Parbat and Kaski jointly attacked at Shrinchowk in 1755 A.D. and seized. By strongly afford king Prithivi Narayan Shah could vanish After control the Chaubise, again he concentrated his mind in the Valley.

  • First invasion of Kirtipur 

King Prithivi Narayan Shah wanted to conquer the valley very quick. After maintaining the Chaubise, he marched with his troops for the valley. In the meantime, the valley kingdoms were harmonized relationship. So, Kaji Kalu Pande requested Prithivi Narayan Shah for not to attack Kirtipur in hurry. But Prithivi Narayan Shah took his advice carelessly and the Gorkhali troops violently attacked Kirtipur on June 1757. After a terrible fight for six hours, the Gorkha troops got a severe blow from the hands of the combined forces of the Valley. Prithivi Narayan Shah himself had a narrow escape. Kaji Kalu Pandey was killed in this battle, who was brave and right-hand of Prithivi Narayan Shah, and along with of 400 Gorkhali troops also lost their lives. Therefore, the Gorkhali troops suffered a heavy loss and the surviving soldiers returned back. But unfortunately, except this battle the valley kings couldn't organize further time. Taking advantage of this situation, king Prithivi Narayan Shah won Shivapuri in 1759 A.D. and after six months he won Kavre Palanchowk also.


  • Conquest of Makawanpur 


After winning the surrounding places of the valley he concentrated his mind at Makawanpur. This place was important to different purposes Prithivi Narayan Shah was bringing the economic crisis in the valley. On the contrary its opposite Digbandan Sen, the king of Makawanpur, who was joined in an alliance with Jaya Prakash Malla was supporting to do business by the help of Bengal. Till this time Prithivi Narayan Shah had only owned the hilly regions but Makawanpur was the treasure of grain of terai region Maka wanpur controlled the southern routes to the Kathmandu valley. Prithivi Narayan Shah thought to conquer and occupy it After that he demanded the expensive gifts such as Naulakha har, the necklace, a elephant having only one trunk, and other so on, with Digbandan Sen. But he didn't accept his purposal and after well preparing, Prithivi Narayan Shah sent the army under the command of his four brothers. The Makawanpur forces fighted during ten-hour battle in the field and they surrendered before the gallant Gorkhas on 21st August 1762 A, D. In the war about 100 Gorkhali and 400 Makawanpur soldiers were killed. Digbandan and his minister Kanaksingh fled from the battlefield and reached Hariharpur. Someday-later Gorkha captured the Himalkot and Sindhuli. Digbandan Sen again came but he had to lose his power and they he fled to India.